Proactol XS is a product that claims to help you lose weight safely and within a short period of time. It is a clinically proven fat binder, that is, it reduces the fat intake so as to help in weight loss. Proactol is basically a natural source of fibers, which work to bind fats.
This is what Proactol is in a nutshell. But let us go into some more detail as to whether it is a weight loss product worth trying out.
Pros and Cons of Proactol XS
One of the best things about Proactol is the fact that it is backed up by over 40 clinical studies. This seems to agree that it is a safe and effective weight loss product. It is also basically a natural product since it is mainly composed of safe ingredients.
The manufacturing company offers peace of mind to clients thanks to a money back guarantee. The company itself seems to be reputable as it is one of the leading UK based manufacturers of dietary supplements.
There seem to be several positive reviews about the effectiveness of Proactol XS. It seems that its fat binding is very effective for weight loss, and when compared to competing for fat binding products it is said to be 33% more effective.
The drawbacks of this product mainly revolve around the fact that despite the fact that it has been clinically tested, there are still some users who claimed that they suffered from some side effects.
Some complained of stomach aches and nausea, and others mentioned vomiting and diarrhea. However for the majority of users, no side effects were reported, and it is safe to state that since Proactol XS is mainly made from natural components, the prevalence of side effects is quite minimal.
How does Proactol XS work?
Proactol XS helps you to:
- Lose weight quickly
- Bind fats
- Reduce body mass
- Control your cravings
The main function of Proactol XS, like any other fat binder, is to help the body reduce its absorption of fats. As a result, this reduces the calorie intake, and the weight can be maintained at an acceptable level.
Proactol XS contains Chitosan, which is very effective in its fat binding capacity. In time, and according to reviews and studies, in the case of Proactol XS, it is a short time, the body fat will start to diminish and so one can achieve the figure he or she always wanted.
Proactol XS Ingredients and Daily Intake
Proactol XS comes in the form of capsules. One should take two capsules up to three times a day. The ingredients include chitosan, silica, magnesium stearate, and Aspergillus niger mycelium.
Is Proactol XS really effective?
All in all, there are many positive reviews about this product. Moreover, since it is made from natural components, produced by a company of good standing, backed by clinical studies and a money back guarantee, it can be concluded that it may be a product worth trying out.
For the chemically minded read more about Proactol XS Studies:
KiOmedine-CsU®, The World’s First GMP Ultra-pure Chitosan of Non-animal Origin for Medical and Pharmaceutical Applications Posted: January 18, 2012 http://www.americanpharmaceuticalreview.com/1488-White-Papers/37547-KiOmedine-CsU-The-World-s-First-GMP-Ultra-pure-Chitosan-of-Non-animal-Origin-for-Medical-and-Pharmaceutical-Applications/
In this article, we highlight the features and advantages of KiOmedine-CsU®, an ultra-pure biopolymer from the mushroom origin, and show how they benefit to medical and pharmaceutical scientists looking for innovative solutions in the medical and pharmaceutical fields.
ULTRA-PURE CHITOSAN FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
Chitosan is a bioresorbable cationic biopolymer made of D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine that is increasingly used in pharmaceutical formulations, wound and hemostats, regenerative medicine and medical devices for biosurgery (TABLE 1).
Many studies have highlighted the unique features brought by chitosan in pharmaceutical formulations, especially in drug delivery systems like tablets, micro- and nanoparticles and hydrogels for mucosal delivery and vaccine delivery1-5.
Chitosan is also well suited for the formulation of biopharmaceutical candidates like peptides, proteins, RNA, DNA6, 7. It brings unique functionalities like mucoadhesiveness, enhancement of bioavailability, enhanced crossing of biological barriers, bioresorbability, interactions with anionic molecules, easy and robust processing into various forms.
Recently, Kean and Thanou have reviewed the large body of work available on in vivo degradation and toxicity of chitosan8. The authors concluded that chitosan could be considered as non-toxic and biocompatible.
Today, ultra-pure chitosan benefits from an extensive body of research and development in various fields, a large background in formulating and processing, a good safety profile, a large number of commercial biomedical products on the market (particularly for trauma hemostasis and wound care), an increasing amount of clinical studies underway using various therapeutics strategies and routes of administration.
The accepted definition of “ultra-pure chitosan” is a chitosan with low bioburden, endotoxin-free, manufactured in accordance with cGMP and suitable for various routes of administrations including the parenteral one, as well as implantable medical devices. It is defined by monographies in the European and US Pharmacopeias.
The traceability, the reliability and the reproducibility of the source of the biopolymer are of great importance. Up to recently, the most frequent commercial source of ultra-pure chitosan was the exoskeleton of shellfish (shrimps, crabs) and squid.
For many years now, there has been extensive research to develop manufacturing of ultra-pure chitosan from non-animal sources. Microalgae and mushroom sources have recently become commercially available, both proving outstanding quality and consistency, thus overcoming some of the drawbacks of shellfish-derived ultra-pure chitosan9-11.
Cultivated edible mushrooms like Agaricus bisporus contain substantial amounts of chitin as the main component of their cell walls. They are widely available from growers worldwide, in a very constant manner, which makes them a source of choice for the production of high-quality chitosan.
TABLE 1 – Medical and pharmaceutical applications of chitosan.
|TABLE 1||Wound & Hemostats||Biosurgery||Scaffolds & Cell Therapy||Vaccine Delivery||Drug Delivery||Ophthalmology|
|Segments of Application||Surgical wound; Traumatic Wound; Burns; Chronic Wound||Cardiovascular; Neurology; Maxillo-facial; General Surgery; Digestive; Ortophedic;Urological||Scaffold for Cell Culture;Cell Delivery;Cell Encapsulation; Tissue Engineering||Parenteral; Transdermal; Oral; Sublingual; Nasal;Pulmonary||Buccal; Sublingual; Nasal; Pulmonary; Oral;Ocular;Vaginal||Tropical; Intravitreal; Sub-conjunctival; Artificial Tears|
|Systems||Wound dressing, hydrophilic, occlusive, hydrogel, interactive wound dressing, burn dressing, sponges, films, foam||Films, sponge, sealant, glue, fibres, tubes||Prorus scaffolds, prorus films, thermosetting gels, tubes||Adjuvants, hydrogels, solutions, microparticles, nanoparticles, preservation||Microparticles, nanoparticles, hydrogel, film, dressing, tablets||Viscoelastic solutions, nanoparticles, inserts|
MANUFACTURING GMP ULTRA-PURE CHITOSAN OF MUSHROOM ORIGIN
The company KitoZyme has established a patented and fully validated GMP process for the manufacturing of ultra-pure chitosan from white edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)11. It conforms to the requirements for use in all pharmaceuticals applications including parenteral, and in all medical devices applications including implants.
KiOmedine-CsU® is manufactured following the ICH-Q7, Eudralex, and CFR21 guidelines, in KitoZyme’s ISO7/ISO8 production facility in Liège, Belgium.
A key aspect of the KiOmedine® technology is the control of the complete production process from the selection of the raw materials to the final packaging. The selected mushrooms are grown in batches by a large European producer in controlled chambers, enabling a traceable and reproducible source of supply.
Controlled growing conditions allow tight regulation of starting a culture, growth substrate, light, temperature, and humidity. All this ensures a high consistency in the chitin and chitosan output.
Another key aspect is the high purity and the tight control of the molecular characteristics of chitosan, achieved thanks to a step-by-step process with strict in-process controls.
The performances of chitosan are indeed ruled by its molecular characteristics (molecular weight and proportion of remaining N-acetyl-glucosamine groups versus the glucosamine groups), and the mushroom technology were proven to achieve a high control of these parameters.
KiOmedine-CsU®is available in a new range of 4 different molecular weights (TABLE 2), available from KitoZyme and in smaller quantities the TABLE 2 – Molecular characteristics of commercially available KiOmedine-CsU®.
|Type||Range of Mv Average viscosimetric molecular weight||Range of apparent viscosity (1% solution in 1% acetic acid)||Range of DA Degree of acetylation (% mol)|
|A||Mv 30,000 – 60,000||< 20 mPa.s||10 – 20%|
|B||Mv 60,000 – 120,000||40 ± 20 mPa.s||15 – 25%|
|C||Mv 110,000 – 150,000||55 ± 25 mPa.s||20 – 30%|
|D||Mv 140,000 – 220,000||90 ± 30 mPa.s||30 – 40%|
Kitozyme’s technology permits a tight management of the molecular characteristics of chitosan, enabling for the first time to supply an ultra-pure GMP chitosan now in the range of 30,000 to 200,000 with narrow polydispersity and consistency.
This enables the medical and pharmaceutical scientists to screen variable molecular characteristics for optimum and consistent performances, a requirement becoming increasingly important for excipients, and gives opportunities for quality-by-design developments, customized specifications and greater differentiation of the final formulations.
The microbiological quality of KiOmedine-CsU® is also excellent. A 1-year stability study shows that endotoxin, yeast and molds, and viable aerobic count levels remain very low with levels below 10EU/g, 10cfu/g and 100cfu/g, respectively.
The safety and efficacy of KiOmedine-CsU® was proven in different formulations and therapeutic strategies, such as the preparation of nanoparticles12-15, tubes and fibres16, neocartilage scaffolds17, hydrogel microbeads18 and surgical devices19.
In a recent publication15, low molecular weight KiOmedine-CsU® (Mw ca. 40,000) was proved to be the most suitable to prepare siRNA/chitosan polyplexes that achieved fast cellular uptake kinetics and appropriate size and shape.
KiOmedine-CsU®, the world’s first ultra-pure GMP chitosan of non-animal origin, sets a new benchmark in strategic medical and pharmaceutical areas.
The availability of this biopolymer with unique features is triggering new developments of chitosan-based pharmaceutical and medical device applications beyond topical and hemostatic use. It makes it easier to bring a product to the market thanks to a 100% animal-free process and outstanding consistent characteristics.
With the broader features of this new ultra-pure chitosan in hand, innovative drug delivery, cell therapy, pharmaceutical and medical device companies should be keener to take a closer look at the performances of chitosan-based systems.
KiOmedine® undeniably injects the right solution for safety innovations and better developments in the medical and pharmaceutical business.
- Eatmon C, Loxley A. Chitosan: sources, chemistry, properties and pharmaceutical uses. Drug Deliv Technol. 2008; 19-18.
- Gautier S, Arpagaus C, Schafroth N, Meuri M, Deschamps A, Maquet V. Very fine chitosan drying microparticles with narrow & controlled size distribution using spray-drying technologies. Drug Deliv Technol. 2010; 8:30-37.
- Garg NK, Mangal S, Khambete H, Sharma PK, Tyagi RK. Mucosal delivery of vaccines: the role of mucoadhesive/biodegradable polymers. Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul. 2010; 4:114-128.
- Luppi B, Bigucci F, Cerchiara T, Zecchi V. Chitosan-based hydrogels for nasal drug delivery: from inserts to nanoparticles. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2010; 7:811-828.
- Chaudhury A, Das S. Recent advancement of chitosan-based nanoparticles for oral controlled delivery of insulin and other therapeutic agents. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2011; 12:10-20.
- Duceppe N, Tabrizian M. Advances in using chitosan-based nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo drug and gene delivery. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2010; 7:1191-1207.
- Andrade F, Antunes F, Nascimento AV, da Silva SB, das Neves J, Ferreira D, Sarmento B. Chitosan formulations as carriers for therapeutic proteins. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2011; 8:157-172.
- Kean T, Thanou M. Biodegradation, biodistribution, and toxicity of chitosan. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2010; 62:3–11.
- Vournakis JN et al. Biocompatible poly-beta-N-acetylglucosamine. US2007105815.
- Fischer TH, Connolly R, Thatte HS, Schwaitzberg SS. Comparison of structural and hemostatic properties of the poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine Syvek Patch with products containing chitosan. Micros Res Tech. 2004; 15:168-174.
- Versali MF et al. Cell wall derivatives from biomass and preparation thereof. WO03068824 (Patent, KitoZyme S.A. 12.02.2003).
- Schültz C et al. Chitosan of a vegetal and animal source as biomaterials for hydrophilic nanoparticles delivery systems. Meeting of the European Society Biomaterials. Lausanne. 2009
- Plapied L, Vandermeulen G, Vroman B, Préat V, des Rieux A. Bioadhesive nanoparticles of fungal chitosan for oral DNA delivery. Int J Pharm. 2010; 398:210-218.
- Dehousse V, Garbacki N, Jaspart S, Castagne D, Piel G, Colige A, Evrard B. Comparison of chitosan/siRNA and trimethyl chitosan/siRNA complexes behavior in vitro. Int J Biol Macromol. 2010; 46:342–349.
- Holzerny P, Ajdini B, Heusermann W, Bruno K, Schuleit M, Meinel L, Keller M. Biophysical properties of chitosan/siRNA polyplexes: Profiling the polymer/siRNA interactions and bioactivity. J Control Release. 2011 in the press.
- Maquet et al. Prosthesis for promoting the in vivo reconstruction of a hollow organ or a portion of a hollow organ. WO2009027537 (Patent application, KitoZyme S.A., 01.09.2008).
- Pressato et al. Biomimetic composite materials, preparation process thereof and use thereof to produce mono-, bi- or multilayer structures for the regeneration of bone, cartilaginous and osteocartilaginous tissue. WO2011064724 (Patent application, FIN-CERAMICA FAENZA S.P.A., 24.11.2010).
- Henrotin et al. An intra-articular supplementation method for treating joint diseases and injuries WO 2011104133 (Patent application, UNIVERSITE DE LIEGE, 11.02.2011)
- Ducreux et al. Combination of chitosan film and hydrogel, and surgical uses thereof. WO2009130414 (Patent application, ANALYTIC BIOSURGICAL SOLUTIONS – ABISS, 30.03.2009).
- Boateng JS, Matthews KH, Stevens HNE, Eccleston GM. Wound healing dressings and drug delivery systems. J Pharm Sci. 2008; 97:2892-2923.
- Jayakumar R, Prabaharan M, Sudheesh Kumar PT, Nair SV, Tamura H. Biomaterials based on chitin and chitosan in wound dressing applications. Biotechnol Adv. 2011; 29:322-337.
- Francesko A, Tzanov T. Chitin, chitosan and derivatives for wound healing and tissue engineering. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 2011; 125:1-27.
- Lauder CI, Garcea G, Strickland A, Maddern GJ. Use of a modified chitosan-dextran gel to prevent peritoneal adhesions in a rat model. J Surg Res. 2010 in press
- Rickett TA, Amoozgar Z, Tuchek CA, Park J, Yeo Y, Shi R. Rapidly photo-cross-linkable chitosan hydrogel for peripheral neurosurgeries. Biomacromolecules. 2011; 12:57–65.
- Freier T, Koh HS, Kazazian K, Shoichet MS. Controlling cell adhesion and degradation of chitosan films by N-acetylation. Biomaterials 2005; 26:5872-5878.
- Jiang T, Kumbar SG,Nair LS, Laurencin CT. Biologically active chitosan systems for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008; 8:354-364.
- Muzzarelli RAA. Chitins and chitosans for the repair of wounded skin, nerve, cartilage, and bone. Carbohyd Polym. 2009; 76:167-182.
- Costa-Pinto AR, Reis RL, Neves NM. Scaffolds based bone tissue engineering: the role of chitosan. Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2011 in the press.
- Read RC, Naylor SC, Potter CW, Bond J, Jabbal-Gill I, Fisher A, Illum L, Jennings R. Effective nasal influenza vaccine delivery using chitosan. Vaccine. 2005; 23:4367–4374.
- Arca HC, Günbeyaz M, Senel S. Chitosan-based systems for the delivery of vaccine antigens. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009; 8:937-953.
- Csaba N, Garcia-Fuentes M, Alonso MJ. Nanoparticles for nasal vaccination. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2009; 61:140-157.
- Saint-Lu N, Tourdot S, Razafindratsita A, Mascarell L, Berjont N, Chabre H, Louise A, Van Ortevelt L, Moingeon P. Targeting the allergen to oral dendritic cells with mucoadhesive chitosan particles enhances tolerance induction. Allergy. 2009; 64:1003-1013.
- Prego C, Paolicelli P, Díaz B, Vicente S, Sánchez A, González-Fernández A, Alonso MJ. Chitosan-based nanoparticles for improving immunization against hepatitis B infection. Vaccine. 2010; 28:2607-2614.
- Paolicelli P, De La Fuente M, Sanchez A, Seijo B, Alonso MJ. Chitosan nanoparticles for drug delivery to the eye. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2009; 6:239-253.
- Schipper NG, Olsson S, Hoogstraate JA, de Boer AG, Varum KM, Artursson P. Chitosans as absorption enhancers for poorly absorbable drugs 2: mechanism of absorption enhancement; Pharm Res. 1997; 14:923-929.
- Werle M, Takeuchi H. Chitosan-aprotinin coated liposomes for oral peptide delivery: Development, characterization and in vivo evaluation. Int J Pharm. 2009; 370:26-32.
- Juliano C, Cossu M, Pigozzi P, Rassu G, Giunchedi P. Preparation, in vitro characterization and preliminary in vivo evaluation of buccal polymeric films containing chlorhexidine. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2008; 9:1153-1158.
- Okamoto H, Danjo K. Local and systemic delivery of high-molecular-weight drugs by powder inhalation. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2007; 127:643-537.
- Saranya N, Moorthi A, Saravanan S, Devi MP, Selvamurugan N. Chitosan and its derivatives for gene delivery. Int J Biol Macromol. 2011; 48:234-238.
- Bhattarai N, Gunn J, Zhang M. Chitosan-based hydrogels for controlled, localized drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2010; 62:83–99.
- Chitosan-based nanostructures: A delivery platform for ocular therapeutics. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2010; 62:100–117.
The University of Edinburgh;
Degree Name BSc Hons;
Field Of Study Pure Chemistry – with Maths and Physics;
Dates attended or expected graduation 1964 – 1968;
Activities and Societies: 2nd Year Beer Drinking Champion, 3rd Year Skittles Champion;
4th-year research project: Analytical X-Ray Crystallography – molecular structure of organic crystals.
Read more about me.